ACT阅读中常见的逻辑结构
2018-07-17
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摘要:


ACT考试中,时间的紧迫性一直是考生们心中永远的痛。尤其是阅读部分,且不论题型中有大量无行号的题目(50%-70%),有些题目即便有行号,定位处也是数以五六行为基础——在有限的时间内,要高效,准确地抓住主信息点,做出题目,似乎是mission impossible, 实则让考生苦恼万分。

因此,小编今天就“段落概括题”,对段落中的主要常见逻辑结构以及如何快速掌握段落大意(main idea of he paragraph) 来做一个简要的分享。

ACT阅读体裁共为四类(prose fiction, social science, humanity,natural science). 一般而言,在阅读小说与人文类题材的时候,多注意重视其中的人物(character), 关系(relationship), 态度(toneand attitude) , 大致的情节(general plot) ,段落的理解基本上不会太难。而social science 与natural science的文章中,段落结构较为严谨和统一,常见的情况有(解释,例证,转折,引用,对比,顺序,分类等)小编简要选取其中三种来做一个分享。

1.解释说明signal words: in fact, thus, therefore

The facts about John Huff, aged twelve, are simple and soon stated. He could path find more trails than anyone since time began, could leap from the sky like a chimpanzee from a vine, could live under water two minutes and slide fifty yards down stream from where you last saw him. The baseballs you pitched him he hit in the apple trees, knocking down harvests. Heran laughing. He sat easy. He was no t a bully. He was kind. He knew the names of all the wild flowers and when the moon would rise and set. He was , in fact,the only god living in he whole of Green Town, Illinois, during the twentieth century that Douglas Spaulding knew of.

在此段落中,前文基本上是对于John Huff年龄,能力各方面的描述,在阅读的过程中,略读即可,即便有生词,也不妨碍大致的理解,不用锱铢必较。读到in fact时候,应当圈一下,做个笔记,表示前文的内容都是服务于in fact后面的这句话的,也就是段落大意。

2. 例证 signal words: for example, for instance./ 第一句与后几句有显著范围变化

Comic art has muchin common with all the other forms of literary and visual communication of the twentieth century. As in fiction, the elements of narrative , characterization,and setting are important in accomplished comic art; and as in poetry, ideas must be developed within a very short period of reading time, a few seconds fora comic strip and fifteen minutes or less for a comic book story. As in drama,a story or incident must be staged before our eyes within the artificial strictures of a box-like frame and with all the limitations of a play in terms of compressed time, dialogue, and plot development. As in a motion picture,such visual devices as cutting, framing, close-ups, and montage are used by the comic artist, and the point-of-view is free to roam the world over to places known and fantastic.

在本段落中,我们很容易发现从as in fiction开始,到as in drama, 以及最后的 as in a motion picture, 都是对于第一句(topic sentence)的具体化例子说明。因此都可以粗略阅读,整个段落的主要内容一目了然,即第一句话。

3 .转折,让步 signal words: It is true that…But/ Although......./ ...., however

If the criteria are made explicit, and can be repeated by other people simply by following the instructions--if, for example, they depend on qualities hat can be measured and are not judged simply according to personal taste--then those criteria can be called ‘objective’. But objective criteria may also be arbitrary. I might, for example, decree that all insects with legs over 2 centimeters long should be placed in a new grouping called ‘mega-insects’.The criterion would be perfectly objective, in the sense that it is explicitand repeatable, which would not be the case if i simply decreed that there should be a special category marked ‘beautiful’. But although the grouping of mega-insects would be objectively defined it would also be arbitrary,. Nothing very special distinguishes insects that just happen to be large, except their largeness.

The mainfunction of the second paragraph(line13-28) in relation to the passage as awhole is to:

F. Describe the characteristics and a potential weakness of objective criteria.

G. Introduce a new scientific concept that the remainder of the passage explores.

H. Argue the needfor subjective criteria, such as beauty, when classifying items.

J. Restate asurprising fact about the origin of classification systems

请同学一定牢记,在转折的语境中,but/however前面的内容永远是不重要的。因此只需要从but后面开始阅读即可。读完句子又发现一个重要的标志词for example, 得知后文长篇大论的内容是个例子,只是支持前面这句话的,因此略读。洋洋洒洒这12行字,要读的有效信息其实只是一句话,即可以解出题目。这样一来,时间自然节约下来,心理压力也会小很多。本题的答案为F( weakness 对应原文的arbitrary, 都为负态度)。


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作者:执浪听风
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