一、伦理型思维与认知型思维中国传统思维方式的另一个特点，可以称为伦理型。而西方人更偏向于认知型思维。让我们来看一道2014年雅思口语Part 2新话题Describe a subject that you want to give information to others，描述一个你想告诉别人信息的科目。
Describe a subject that you want to give information to others.
You should say:
what the subject is
when people ask you information about the subject
what you would say
and explain how you feel after people ask you information about the subject.
“Hi, my name’s Roen Plesser, I’m from Duke University. And I want to talk to you about an astronomy course that I’ll be teaching online soon. I’ve been teaching a class similar to this at Duke for 10 years, and I’m excited about the opportunity to offer it to many more students through this online video. I like teaching astronomy despite the fact that I’m not professionally an astronomer, because astronomy give us an opportunity at the same time to discuss aspects of the university that we see every day—what stars are visible in the evening sky, why there are rainbows when it rains and why the moon changes shape in the sky. At the same time, it gives an opportunity to talk about aspects of physics that are not immediately obvious to us every day. Quantum mechanics, Einstein’s theory of relativity will all make an appearance and will be applied to understand the things that we have to talk about. So in teaching this class, we get to take a romp through physics, starting with things we see around us every day and culminating in things that we don’t understand yet. The beautiful thing, the glorious thing about astronomy is that the laws of physics that governs what happens in stars that might be a billion galaxies far away and long time ago are exactly the same laws that apply to our life here on earth. So understanding one, we understand the other. These laws are mathematical and they’re precise. And the understanding to which I refer is a very technical term. I say I understand something when I can make a calculation based on some principles. I can make a measurement and the two numbers the one I computed and the one I measured actually agree. This is the kind of understanding that we are going to try to achieve for as much of the universe as we can. Achieving this kind understanding is not an easy task. It’ll take some work, but it’s, I find, one of the most gratifying things that we can do. So if you have some time and some energy and you want to invest in having a completely mind-blowing new way to look at the universe around you, you’re invited to join us for this adventure. And I hope to see you in a few months.”
Describe an event that changed your life in a good/positive way.
You should say:
when it happened
where it happened
what the change was
and explain how you have benefited from this change.
“Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn''t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can''t capture, and I found it fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it’s likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can''t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something - your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.”