雅思阅读材料盘点:脑机连接的世界
2018-08-04
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摘要:

  以下是三立在线雅思网给大家分享的雅思阅读材料盘点:脑机连接的世界。希望对大家的雅思备考有所帮助,更多雅思备考资料欢迎大家随时关注三立在线雅思网。

  Brains and computers,We can remember it for you wholesale,Elon Musk enters the world of brain-computer interfaces伊隆·马斯克步入脑机连接的世界

  EVER since ENIAC, the first computer that could be operated by a single person, began flashing its ring counters in 1946, human beings and calculating machines have been on a steady march towards tighter integration. Computers entered homes in the 1980s, then migrated onto laps, into pockets and around wrists. In the laboratory, computation has found its way onto molars and into eyeballs. The logical conclusion of all this is that computers will, one day, enter the brain.

  1946年,第一台可由单人操作的计算机埃尼阿克(ENIAC)开始展示自己的环形计数器。自那时起,人类和“计算的机器”便一直向更紧密的结合稳步前进着。计算机在上世纪80年代走入千家万户,之后又移步至人们的膝上、口袋里以及腕间。在实验室里,计算在臼齿上及眼球中派上了用场。由此得出的一个合理结论便是:总有一天,计算机会进入人类的大脑。

  This, at least, is the bet behind a company called Neuralink, just started by Elon Musk, a serial technological entrepreneur. Information about Neuralink is sparse, but trademark filings state that it will make invasive devices for treating or diagnosing neurological ailments. Mr Musk clearly has bigger plans, though. He has often tweeted cryptic messages referring to “neural lace”, a science-fictional concept invented by Iain M. Banks, a novelist, that is, in essence, a machine interface woven into the brain.

  起码一家名叫Neuralink的公司押下了这一赌注。这家公司刚由开创了一系列科技业务的企业家伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)设立。关于该公司的信息寥寥,但其商标申请文件称公司将打造用于治疗及诊断神经系统疾病的侵入性装置。不过,马斯克无疑还有更宏伟的计划。他经常在推特上发些令人捉摸不透、谈及“神经织网”(neural lace)的消息。这一科幻概念是由小说家伊恩·M·班克斯(Iain M. Banks)所构想,从本质上说,就是将机器界面植入人脑。

  Although devices that can read and write data to and from the brain as easily as they would to and from a computer remain firmly in the realm of imagination, that has not stopped neuroscientists (and, of course, Mr Musk) from indulging in some speculation. Theodore Berger of the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles, has proposed that brain implants might be used to store and retrieve memories. Dr Berger’s prosthesis would be intended to help those whose brains cannot form long-term memories because they are damaged. But if the idea worked, there seems little reason why those without damage should not and would not want something similar. Mr Musk himself, more ambitiously still, imagines an implant that would let the wearer tap directly into the internet, and all of the computational power available there.

  虽然能够自如地在人脑内读写数据(就像在计算机上读写数据那样)的设备仍然只停留在想象的世界中,但神经科学家们(当然,还有马斯克)并没有就此停止去探究某些猜测。洛杉矶南加州大学的西奥多·伯格(Theodore Berger)提出,人脑植入物也许可用来存储和提取记忆。伯格所说的这种大脑假体将被用于帮助那些脑部因受损而无法形成长期记忆的人。不过,如果这一想法奏效,那些大脑并没受损的人似乎也并没什么理由不应该要、也没理由不想要和这种假体类似的东西。马斯克本人的想象更为大胆。他觉得可以有这样一种植入物,让植入者直接就能使用互联网,以及互联网提供的所有计算能力。

  Of minds and melding 人脑与融合

  Behind this suggestion lies Mr Musk’s argument, made repeatedly, that human beings need to embrace brain implants to stay relevant in a world which, he believes, will soon be dominated by artificial intelligence. Proposing the artificial augmentation of human intelligence as a response to a boom in artificial intelligence may seem a bit much. But Mr Musk’s new company is not alone. A firm called Kernel is following a similar path.

  马斯克反复提及、用以支撑这一想法的论据是:他认为人工智能很快将主导这个世界,人类需要欣然接纳脑植入物才不至于变得无足轻重。利用人为手段来增强人类智能,以此来应对人工智能的蓬勃发展,这似乎有点过火。不过马斯克的新公司并不是独一份。一家名叫Kernel的公司也走上了类似的道路。

  To start with, Kernel’s engineers hope to build devices for the treatment of neurological conditions such as strokes and Alzheimer’s disease. Ultimately, however, they want to create cognition-enhancing implants that anyone might care to buy. Kernel was founded in October 2016 by Bryan Johnson, an entrepreneur who, like Mr Musk, got rich by processing payments online (PayPal, which Mr Musk helped found, bought Braintree, Mr Johnson’s company, in 2013). Mr Johnson put $100m of his own money into Kernel, stating that “unlocking our brain is the most significant and consequential opportunity in history.”


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作者:Spring Rain
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