托福阅读高分必备技能——后置定语
2018-07-24
三立整理
97
0
摘要:

      后置定语在考试中是一个应用比较普遍的语法概念,通过后置定语的识别以此快速确立句子或者短语的中心,有助于我们在分析语段的过程中适时聚焦注意力,同时不少题目也会涉及到与后置定语相关的线索(句子简化题居多),那今天我们从其他的几个题型来感受一下它的威力吧。

  常见的后置定语表现形式:

  The leaders (present at the meeting) are very famous

  His lover (for his country) is very great

  The kid (running on the ground) is cute

  The girl (punished by the teacher) cried

  She has a meeting (to attend)

  Ilike the chocolate (that you bought for me yesterday)

  Paragraph4: Forehead rubbing by male deer on buckrubs presumably sends a great deal of information to other members of the samespecies. First, the chemicals deposited on the rub provide information on the individual identity of an animal; no two mammals produce the same scent. For instance, as we all know, dogs recognize each other via smell. Second,because only male deer rub, the buck rub and its associated chemicals indicate the sex of the deer producing the rub. Third, older more dominant bucks produce more buck rubs and probably deposit more glandular secretions on a given rub. Thus, the presence of many well-marked rubs is indicative of older, higher-status males being in the general vicinity rather than simply being a crudemeasure of relative deer abundance in a given area. The information conveyed by the olfactorysignals on a buck rub makes it the social equivalent of some auditory signals in other deer species, such as trumpeting by bull elk.

  What can be inferred fromparagraph 4 about the trumpeting of bull elk?

  ○Trumpeting by higher-status bull elk signals their presence to other members of their species.

  ○Bull elk need to combine trumpeting with olfactory signals to convey information about their identity.

  ○Trumpeting alerts white-tailed deer to the presence of bull elk in their vicinity.

  ○Trumpeting provides a better measure of deer presence in a given area than buck rubs do.

  这是一道推断题,较有难度,根据题干定位后发现解题区间在原文的最后2句话,都是长难句,我们来逐一分析一下;根据trumpeting先是定位到最后一句,这个句子包含了后置定语conveyed by the olfactory signals on a buck rub,读到这里发现并不是句子重心,后面的makes it social equivalent才是句子重心,由此能感觉到作者意在做类比,非常符合推断题的解题思路哦,比较对象分别是通过olfactory (rub) 传达的信号和通过auditory(trumpeting)传达的信号,这两种信号具有相同的社会功能;

  上一句依然包含了后置定语,being in the general vicinity ........in a given area,所以句子重心在前,讲的是rub的出现代表着周围有older, higher-status的buck

  最后我们尝试联系一下这2句话,得出的结论是:olfactory(rub)→higher status buck

  =auditory(trumpeting)→higher status bull elk,选择A

  The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since theentry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. The early explorers and settlerstold of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath be moaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbia Riveron November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstances. They had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk. To keep 40 people alive that winter,they consumed approximately 150 elk and 20 deer. And when game moved out of the lowlands in early spring, the expedition decided to return east rather than face possible starvation. Later on in the early years of the nineteenth century, when Fort Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate. David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s, found a disturbing change in the animal life around the fort during the period between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832. A recent Douglas biographer states:" The deer which once pictures quely dotted the meadows around the fort were gone in 1832, hunted to extermination in order to protect the crops."

  According to paragraph 3, how had Fort Vancouver changed by the time David Douglas returned in 1832?

  ○The fort had become the headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company.

  ○Deer had begun populating the meadows around the fort.

  ○Deer populations near the fort had been destroyed.

  ○Crop yields in the area around the fort had decreased.

  这是一道细节题,解题策略会相对更简单粗暴一些,根据题干1832我们定位到and his final contact with the fort in 1832,这里读一下发现并没有回答题目,那下一句应该继续再讲1832年之后的故事,由此往下看是一个长难句,出现了后置定语which once picturesquely dotted the meadows around the fort,并不是句子重心,句子重心在were gone, 表示这些鹿都消失了,以此为线索可以确定包含destroyed的选项C为同义改写选项

  The basic cultural requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific islands include the appropriate boat-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place, domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions, and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques. It is now generally believed that these prerequisites originated with peoples speaking Austronesian languages (a group of several hundredrelated languages) and began to emerge in Southeast Asia by about 5000 B.C.E.The culture of that time, based on archaeology and linguistic reconstruction,is assumed to have had a broad inventory of cultivated plants including taro,yarns, banana, sugarcane, breadfruit, coconut, sago, and rice. Just as important, the culture also possessed the basic foundation for an effective maritime adaptation, including outrigger canoes and a variety of fishing techniques that could be effective for overseas voyaging.

  All of the following are mentioned inparagraph 3 as required for successful colonization of the Pacific islands EXCEPT

  ○ knowledge of various Austronesian languages

  ○ avariety of fishing techniques

  ○ navigational skills

  ○ knowledge of plant cultivation

  这是一道排除题,几个正确选项在第一句话里都分别有提及,而错误选项A并非完全没有提到,它的位置在第二句话的前半个分句,这里依然出现后置定语speaking Austronesian languages,用以修饰people,而不是A选项提到的中心词knowledge,所以选A

  ■There is a danger, of course, that playmay be misinterpreted or not recognized as play by others, potentially leadingto aggression. This is especially true when play consists of practicing normal aggressive or predator behaviors.■Thus, many species have evolved clear signalsto delineate playfulness.■Dogs, for example, will wag their tails,get down their front legs, and stick their behinds in the air to indicate “what follows is just for play.”■

  With messages such as those, evendogsthat are strangers to each other can be playing within a few minutes

  再看一道插入题,插入题我们一般会关注插入句中的逻辑词比如这里有even,那我们换个角度看一下,这里发现了后置定语that are strangers to each other用以修饰前面的dogs,所以插入句中提到的狗不是泛泛而指的狗哦,而是互相不认识的狗。回到原文发现最后一句话开始提到Dogs,是泛指,插入句中的dogs被后置定语限定过,是特指,特指放在泛指后面,选D

  The raising of live stock is a major economic activity in semiarid lands, where grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation. The consequences of an excessive number of livestock grazing in an area are the reduction of the vegetation cover and the trampling and pulverization of the soil. This is usually followed by the drying of the soil and accelerated erosion.

  ○Grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation insemiarid lands.

  最后这是一道段落小结题,该段落第一句话为段落主题句,同时出现了后置定语where grasses aregenerally the dominant type of natural vegetation,句子重心在前,强调家畜的饲养为主要经济活动,中心词是the raising of livestock,后面的内容也是围绕着这个词展开的,讲的是这种活动对于该地区产生的影响,不再涉及后置定语中有关grass的讨论;所以这个选项就自然排除啦。

  关于后置定语的介绍就先到这了,那这个技能同学们都掌握了吗?学会了的话我们就尝试把它练到满级吧,相信在托福阅读中你一定用得到哦。

三立在线托福精品课程包括:

1.    托福真题模考冲刺课程:以独家42套真题(在线真题)为辅助材料,把20152016年全部真题一网打尽,精讲每一道题、每篇文章。

教师上课方式:方法论(1/4课程时间)专题训练(1/4课程时间)套题训练(1/4课程时间)查缺补漏(1/4课程时间)

赠送:托福在线题库VIP账户。

2.托福8000词汇班-录播课程

三立在线针对2018年的托福考试,开设“托福词汇课程、基础课程、强化课程、刷题模考课程、冲刺课程”。想快速提分的同学可以在线咨询客服,了解课程详情,预约名师1V1试听课;为你量身打造专属托福学习方案;免费领取托福考试学习资料/视频课件/直播公开课/托福TPO模考题库/原版英文杂志!

作者:七堇年华
0
0
已有0人对该文章表态,0%的人喜欢

您的赞赏,是对我创作的最大鼓励

赞赏
0人赞赏
你可能喜欢
热门评论(0)
loading
正在载入...
加载失败,请重试
已经到底了
(0)
请输入评论内容/您的评论中包含违禁敏感词误
×
请先登录您的账号


您还未登录,不能发表评论

去登录
×
索取TOEFL必备资料
验证手机,获得TOEFL独家备考资料合集下载地址
请填写正确的手机号码
验证码错误
关注热点
  • 考试政策
  • 备考指导
  • 考试技巧
获取资料:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1nvLmWKL
资料密码:qvvc
前往查看



请保持手机通话畅通,您很快会接到
来自三立TOEFL提分咨询师的电话。



请添加三立TOEFL老师答疑微信号
(ID:Emily_professional),即可开始提问。